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cemeteries Racine History

SECOR: The Story of Racine’s Most Colorful & Controversial Character

Martin Mathias Secor—it’s a name that may not ring a bell to you, dear reader, but I assure you in all my research I have done, this man stands apart from the crowd. M.M. Secor was a Bohemian immigrant with a motto— “Anything worth doing at all is worth doing right.”[1] He was a character, an eccentric, some might say. With a tall stovepipe hat[2] adorning his already 6-foot stature, flowing white hair with a windswept mustache,[3] a flower from his garden always tucked in his lapel,[4] and a golden knobbed cane,[5] Secor was a man of distinction. He had a booming voice, people said, but a kind one nonetheless.[6] He was an entrepreneur who owned several businesses, including a nationally renowned luggage company, and he was a well-respected member of the Bohemian community.[7] Not only was he financially successful, but Secor also spread his wealth through various charitable avenues and to his own workers.[8] M.M. Secor was the man who could, and did, do it all.

A Bohemian Businessman

In 1851 Secor made his trip from Bohemia to the United States, and at the young age of eleven Secor had arrived in Racine County with his parents, Mathias and Fanny Secor, three sisters, and a brother.[9] His family soon settled in to a log cabin on Four Mile Road.[10] He stayed on his father’s farm doing work until the age of fourteen when he left to start doing work of his own—odd jobs, mostly.[11] After living in Racine for a while Secor found his future wife, Frances Hayes, also the child of Bohemian immigrants and on February 4, 1862 he married her.[12]

820 Secor, M.M
Portrait of Martin Mathias Secor

After building up a reputation for himself, in 1868 Secor decided it was time to plunge into the business world on his own and borrowed $100 at 10% interest for ten years. Along with $80 of his own money he invested in his first company, the Northwestern Bag Company.[13] Originally, Secor made his trunks in his wife’s kitchen until he had the money for his own location.[14] The location he chose was on Main Street, but his company was growing so rapidly that it soon required its own building to be constructed. Soon Secor’s trunk company stood on Lake Avenue, slowly growing until in 1888 the plant had eight buildings[15] and around 125 employees.[16] It was recorded in 1918 that the building stretched all the way from 127 to 407 Lake Avenue.[17] Eventually Secor even incorporated several other companies and renamed his own the Northwestern Trunk and Travelling Bag Company.[18] The buildings remained on Lake Avenue until their demolition in the Summer of 1987.[19]

 

656.02 Lake Ave c.1880 Middle Large Building was Secor's Trunk co there is a trunk on a pole in front of the building 200~1
Lake Ave c.1880–the middle large building was Secor’s Trunk company–there is a trunk mounted on a pole in front of the building

Secor had not only developed an impressive production of trunks that were popular with Racine residents, but they were popular nationally. Secor’s trunks stood for quality, bringing us back to his favorite motto, “Anything worth doing at all is worth doing right.” It was said that one day on a trip to a department store in Denver, Secor purchased a trunk made by another manufacturer and dissected it with a jackknife in front of everyone to prove its “inferior quality.”[20] It is easy to just assume that the claims of the quality of his trunks were just legend but if you’re out around Racine in the summer stop by some thrift sales—some of his trunks that are well over 75-100 years old are still in decent shape being sold as antique luggage.[21]

Park of China Asters

With a successful business comes profit. M.M. Secor’s home, commonly known as the Park of China Asters, exemplified that wealth.[22] Secor moved from above his trunk salesroom on Main Street in 1874 to a beautiful mansion on Milwaukee Avenue (now known as Dr. Martin Luther King Drive) that took up the entire block. The building is thought to have originally been built for a lumber dealer in the early 1850s.[23] Secor lived there with his wife Fanny and his four daughters.

820 Secor Home c1870 1014 Milwaukee Ave 72 dpi watermark
Park of China Asters c.1870

They had a lavish garden with Secor’s favorite red and white roses he often cut to wear in his lapel, along with a rare species of black roses. He had a small orchard complete with a fig tree, a dwarf lemon tree, and many orange trees. There were two conservatories on the property and a five-basin goldfish pond, which was just an example of Secor’s exotic pets that lived on the ground. Secor had a proper menagerie on his estate.[24] Secor’s menagerie was home to a coyote—his first animal—two bears, a monkey, six deer, many parrots, rabbits, mockingbirds, a goat, and seven peacocks, five of which were killed by dogs that got onto his property in 1889. A deer was also injured in the attack.[25] Secor was incensed and threatened to shoot the “vicious canines” if they attacked his pets again.[26] After his death it was said that the Ringling Brothers Circus bought several of his animals.[27]

Progressive Philanthropist

Secor’s home was much larger than he needed for a small family of six, even with the additional animals that lived on the property, so Secor decided to use his home as a boarding house for some of the men who worked for him at the trunk company.[28] In an 1880 census there were 28 people recorded as living in the Secor mansion—Secor and his own family, the family gardener and teamster, and eighteen boarders from his own company.[29] On his 2 ½ acre property his gardens also provided much of the food his boarders ate and the excess was sold to others at a discounted price. Secor was an individualist and believed firmly in free enterprise, but also in humanity.[30] Secor was by all accounts, a very generous and progressive business owner. He believed that a man’s religion was how he lived and what he did, not what he believed in and Secor lived up to that very ideal.[31] Aside from providing room and board to his workers, Secor was well known for a work holiday of his own invention—Thirteenth Day. On Thirteenth Day, which occurred once a year, Secor would give every one of his employees an extra month’s salary.[32] He was proud and often reminded people that 95% of his workers owned their own homes.[33]

His benevolence was recognized around town and extended beyond his own company. Residents recalled how when he saw a poor or “shabby” child on the streets he would take them to the nearest shop and buy them coats, caps, and other clothing.[34] He also donated to charities, hospitals, and the local orphanage, the Taylor Home.[35] Because Secor did not believe that religion was in itself a charitable organization he made a point to never donate to churches.[36] Secor also donated to the city for construction projects that would benefit the public and was the mayor when Racine’s streets were first paved.[37] At one point in time, the Chicago Tribune published an article about Secor accusing him of being a drunk (due to his anti-prohibition views)[38] and of embezzling funds from a new bridge he built in Racine.[39] He successfully sued the Chicago Tribune for libel and purchased a new illuminated four-sided clock that was installed in the tower of City Hall,[40] a building that he had at one point donated $7,000 toward the construction of.[41] Secor later said that the clock would ensure that there would be no excuse that people didn’t know when it was midnight—the time saloons closed in Racine.[42]

Secor was also the owner of the Nelson Hotel,[43] the First Bohemian National Bank of America, and a set of Turkish baths which were all located in the present-day Main Place (also known as the McClurg building).[44] He was also the first business owner in Racine to have his own business telephone, installed in 1881, and his daughters were the first stenographers in Racine because Secor was also one of the first men to own typewriters in his office.[45]

Mayorship and the Assassination Attempt

Secor was not only a prolific businessman but also involved in politics. He ran on both the Republican and Democratic tickets for different positions and considered himself to be independent.[46] Secor ran twice for mayor, winning his first term as in 1884 and his second term in 1888.[47] Although he did many things for the city in his time as mayor, perhaps one of the most notable parts of his mayorship was when he was almost assassinated. To this day he is still Racine’s only mayor to have an assassination attempt.

The attempt was made during his first term as mayor in 1884.  He was riding home from a city council meeting when his carriage rode over a bomb that was placed in front of his home. The bomb did not immediately go off as the carriage rolled over it, so the bomber came out of hiding to inspect it—as he did so, it went off seriously injuring the man.[48] The suspect fled but spots of blood led back to the home of a former bookkeeper of Secor’s who had recently been dismissed. Although the bookkeeper was not the bomber, the suspect was, in fact, hiding in his home, a man by the name of John Jambor from Milwaukee. Some believe that the bookkeeper was in on the plot, but it was never proven.[49] Secor was apparently so rattled by the near-death experience that from then on he was always seen holding the reigns from the backseat of his carriage, where he felt safer.[50]

A Lasting Legacy

820 Secor Gravestone 150 dpi watermark
M.M. Secor’s tombstone at Mound Cemetery, Racine WI

Secor died in his home after a deadly fall in 1911 at 69 years old. The news article that reported his death said he fell a week prior on a Tuesday when he was getting up from his bed. Secor fell upon one of his bedposts, breaking three ribs, one of which punctured his lungs. He contracted a serious cold afterward and died due to complications. The flags at City Hall and his trunk company were lowered in honor of the former mayor.[51] His company continued for a full seven years after his death,[52] being one of the largest in the United States at the time.[53]

Before his death, Secor had his headstone erected in Mound Cemetery. It caused quite a bit of controversy. Engraved in the headstone was a somewhat tendentious quote by Voltaire, a favorite philosopher of his.

THIS WORLD IS MY HOME

TO DO GOOD IS MY RELIGION

WHY DID THE GOOD GOD CREATE A BAD DEVIL[54]

So many people were outraged by the message on the tombstone that is was debated on whether or not it would even be placed in the cemetery. However, it was. Attempts have been made to have the headstone removed from the cemetery as late as the 1930s.[55]

Secor’s progressive attitude and sense of philanthropy have left a lasting impact on the Racine community. He may have been mostly forgotten but this character can never be dashed from the historical record. Secor’s life and legacy are a fascinating look into Racine’s manufacturing history and politics of the late 1800s.

Sources

  • [1] “Freethought Trunks and Travelling Bags.” Freethought Today (Madison, WI) June/July 1990.
  • [2] “Tombstone Epitaph Recalls Controversial Racine Mayor,” Racine Journal Times (Racine, WI) August 19, 1973.
  • [3] “Forty-Two Men Held Mayor’s Post During Racine’s 105 Years as a City,” Racine Journal Times (Racine, WI) February 6, 1953.
  • [4] Racine Journal Times (Racine, WI) August 18, 1998.
  • [5] “Tombstone Epitaph Recalls Controversial Racine Mayor,” Racine Journal Times
  • [6] “Forty-Two Men Held Mayor’s Post During Racine’s 105 Years as a City,” Racine Journal Times
  • [7] “Freethought Trunks and Travelling Bags.” Freethought Today
  • [8] “Tombstone Epitaph Recalls Controversial Racine Mayor,” Racine Journal Times
  • [9] Soldiers and Citizens’ Album of Biographical Record (Chicago: Grand Army Publishing Co, 1890)
  • [10] Ibid.
  • [11] Soldiers and Citizens’ Album of Biographical Record (Chicago: Grand Army Publishing Co, 1890)
  • [12] Ibid.
  • [13] “A Secor Biography,” Preservation Racine Newsletter (Racine, WI) Spring 1990.
  • [14] “Business started in his kitchen,” Racine Journal Times (Racine, WI) April 26, 1986.
  • [15] Ibid.
  • [16] “Tombstone Epitaph Recalls Controversial Racine Mayor,” Racine Journal Times
  • [17] “A Secor Biography,” Preservation Racine Newsletter
  • [18] Soldiers and Citizens’ Album of Biographical Record (Chicago: Grand Army Publishing Co, 1890)
  • [19] “So what’s new about Hill hotel proposal?” Racine Journal Times (Racine, WI) August 1, 1987.
  • [20] File 1, Folder 1. Secor, M.M. Vertical File. (Racine Heritage Museum, Racine, WI)
  • [21] Ibid.
  • [22] “A Secor Biography,” Preservation Racine Newsletter
  • [23] File 1, Folder 1. Secor, M.M. Vertical File. (Racine Heritage Museum, Racine, WI)
  • [24] Ibid.
  • [25] “Why not Secor Park?” Racine Journal Times (Racine, WI) January 15, 1983.
  • [26] Racine Journal Times (Racine, WI) August 18, 1998.
  • [27] Margo Drummond, The Legend of M.M. Secor (Racine) 26.
  • [28] File 1, Folder 1. Secor, M.M. Vertical File. (Racine Heritage Museum, Racine, WI)
  • [29] Ibid.
  • [30] Ibid.
  • [31] Ibid.
  • [32] “Tombstone Epitaph Recalls Controversial Racine Mayor,” Racine Journal Times
  • [33] Ibid.
  • [34] Ibid.
  • [35] Ibid.
  • [36] File 1, Folder 1. Secor, M.M. Vertical File. (Racine Heritage Museum, Racine, WI)
  • [37] “Tombstone Epitaph Recalls Controversial Racine Mayor,” Racine Journal Times
  • [38] Racine Journal Times (Racine, WI) August 18, 1998.
  • [39] Margo Drummond, The Legend of M.M. Secor (Racine) 17-18.
  • [40] “Why not Secor Park?” Racine Journal Times
  • [41] Racine Journal Times (Racine, WI) August 18, 1998.
  • [42] “Why not Secor Park?” Racine Journal Times
  • [43] “So what’s new about Hill hotel proposal?” Racine Journal Times
  • [44] Margo Drummond, The Legend of M.M. Secor (Racine) 5.
  • [45] “Tombstone Epitaph Recalls Controversial Racine Mayor,” Racine Journal Times
  • [46] Soldiers and Citizens’ Album of Biographical Record (Chicago: Grand Army Publishing Co, 1890)
  • [47] “Long, short terms,” Racine Journal Times (Racine, WI) April 29, 1984.
  • [48] “Tombstone Epitaph Recalls Controversial Racine Mayor,” Racine Journal Times
  • [49] “Freethought Trunks and Travelling Bags.” Freethought Today
  • [50] “Tombstone Epitaph Recalls Controversial Racine Mayor,” Racine Journal Times
  • [51] “Ex-Mayor Secor Has Passed Away,” Racine Daily Journal (Racine, WI) January 5, 1911.
  • [52] Margo Drummond, The Legend of M.M. Secor (Racine) 26.
  • [53] “Tombstone Epitaph Recalls Controversial Racine Mayor,” Racine Journal Times
  • [54] Ibid.
  • [55] “Freethought Trunks and Travelling Bags.” Freethought Today
Categories
cemeteries Racine History

Mound Cemetery: Home of the Dead

Humans have had a long history of both honoring and burying their dead leading some historians to recognize cemeteries as some of the first permanent human settlements. [1] Cemeteries are where we gather the remains of our loved ones and send them on to their next life, whatever it may be. Together, our ancestors inhabit the ground for us to visit and honor. In Racine, Wisconsin Mound Cemetery is one of the state’s most unique settlements of the dead with burials spanning hundreds of years. The cemetery itself is home to over 5,000 unknown and unmarked graves with thousands of more known gravesites that contain the remains of some of Racine’s most noteworthy individuals.[2] The most unique features of Mound Cemetery are the very mounds it is named after; Ancient Native American burial mounds. The mounds within Racine’s oldest standing cemetery are also believed to be some of the oldest man-made features in Racine.

135 Mound Cemetery 100 dpi watermark (3)
Mound Cemetery, Racine, WI

The land that Mound Cemetery is currently situated on is part of a plot of land purchased by two early settlers of Racine from a man named Joseph Antoine Ouilmette.[4] Early records indicate Ouilmette was one of the earliest settlers of the area, coming to Racine in 1834 from Crosse Point, Wisconsin. With him, he brought his wife and children.[5] Ouilmette himself was listed as both Indian and French based on different sources, but his wife was Potawatomi.[6] This explains why many records indicate that the land was purchased from, and originally belonged to, the Potawatomi.[7] Early white settlers Norman Clark and James Kinzie purchased the land from Ouilmette in a sales agreement on February 3rd, 1851. Ouilmette described the land as the “burial place of his fathers” and reportedly signed the contract with “his mark.”[8] In November of 1851 the City of Racine purchased thirty acres of Kinzie and Norman’s land and named the area Mound Cemetery shortly after.[9]

The Excavation of the Mounds

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A mound near two headstones in Mound Cemetery

Some of the earliest recorded speculation as to who the mound builders were was by one of the men responsible for excavating them, Dr. Philo Hoy. Hoy came from a region in Ohio that also was home to many mounds and speculated that the mounds in Racine were constructed by the same people.[10] Hoy was considered a scientist, pioneer archaeologist, and was a practicing physician as early as 1846.[11] In 1852 Hoy along with Increase Lapham began to survey and plat the sixty mounds within the cemetery. Hoy is credited with excavating several of the mounds along with Lapham and writing detailed descriptions of their findings.[12]

Hoy described the mounds as basin-shaped holes, approximately two feet deep. They were hand dug into the grounds and covered with bark or logs and layers of soil. [13] The majority of mounds were about two to four feet in height and thirty to forty feet in diameter[14] though one of the mounds was recorded at almost seven feet tall.[15] He believed the mounds were each built one at a time due to the lack of stratigraphic evidence in the soil.[16]

135 Mound Cemetery 72 dpi watermark
A sketch of one of the skulls found in the mounds

When the mounds were excavated local newspapers reported that the remains of over 100 Native Americans had been discovered, though this claim is rather shaky and difficult to prove since remains were often moved and few records were made of the removal and movement of bodies.[17] When Hoy and Lapham decided to excavate the mounds they carefully chose fourteen of them to take a closer look at. Inside they found multiple skeletons in most. One mound had the remains of seven individuals, but most contained only one to four sets of skeletal remains.[18] The bodies in the mounds were found sitting up facing east, with their legs flexed beneath their body.[19]

135 Mound Cemetery 72 dpi watermark (2)
A sketch of the position of skeletons within the mounds

Although most mounds only contained unornamented skeletal remains, in one of the mounds some pottery was recovered, similar in style to Burmese cooking pots. Three of the pots were reconstructed from the fragments found within the mound and given to the Smithsonian.[20] Two of the vases in better condition were recorded in detail by Dr. Hoy. He described one vase as made from a sandy cream-colored substance that resembled pale brick and could hold about five quarts. The other vase was a red brick color and considerably smaller. [21]

Hoy and Lapham used dendrochronology to date the burial mounds at the cemetery site and produced some interesting results (dendrochronology, as defined by Merriam-Webster, is the science of dating events and variations in environment in former periods by comparative study of growth rings in trees and aged wood).[22] One of the tree stumps examined near the mound had 250 rings in it and had not been cut in ten years but another stump showed an even earlier origin of the construction of the mounds. Another stump that had 310 rings in it was found next to a human skull in a remarkable state of preservation. From this evidence, the two archeologists were able to conclude the site was at least 1,000 years old[23] and thus part of Racine’s prehistoric history.[24] They thought that the people who constructed the mounds must have been a barbarous people and not any more advanced than modern Native Americans, showing a sad but common attitude toward the native cultures of America.[25]

They speculated all sorts of causes as to why the burials had so many skeletons and were constructed just one at a time. They wondered if they had died of battle or pestilence, or perhaps they had died of more natural causes in the winter and were buried once the ground thawed in the spring.[26] Ethnologists have also taken a stab at cracking the mystery of who the mound builders were, concluding they were most likely ancestors to modern Native Americans.[27]

Preservation

Perhaps one of the most important aspects of the Mound Cemetery site was its careful preservation. Mounds had once existed in many areas in southeastern Wisconsin including the nearby areas of the Town of Norway, City of Burlington, and Raymond Township, but the vast majority of these have been destroyed and lost to time.[28] Racine too used to have dozens of more mounds, many along the bluffs of the Root River.[29] North of the plots Hoy and Lapham originally surveyed, there were even three lizard effigy mounds, one long mound, and six conical mounds, none of which exist today.[30] Subdivisions have been built over many of the areas where these mounds once were.[31] Construction, natural forces, relic hunters, mound diggers, and agriculture have all likely contributed to the disappearance of the mounds.[32] The records Hoy wrote of the mounds are some of the only things that remain of these lost mounds and were not published until 1903 by George A. West in the Wisconsin Archeological Society Report.[33]

Mound Cemetery was officially dedicated on June 3rd, 1852. Hoy was a part of the committee to preserve the mounds in the cemetery. He plotted 1,768 cemetery plots[34] in eight blocks with his committee.[35] The paths of the roads were made around the mounds and have not needed to be altered since their creation due to the roads’ original width of eighteen to twenty feet, wide enough for the modern car.[36] Hoy was a self-described naturalist and used native flora to the area to help preserve the mounds. Around each mound, he planted a variety of trees, shrubs, and other plants including elms, willows, hawthorns, and berry plants.[37]  Currently, thirteen mounds remain preserved in the cemetery[38] and now have preservation markers created by Racine’s city council.[39] The mounds that currently reside in the cemetery have never been excavated and remain mostly untouched.[40]

Mound Cemetery Today

Mound Cemetery is an important archeological and historical site to the City of Racine. Over four generations of Racine’s residents have been buried in Mound Cemetery[41] and many of those remains were even relocated from other earlier cemeteries to protect them from natural threats and construction.[42] On May 12th, 1976 Mound Cemetery was designated as an official landmark of the City of Racine and was granted special protections.[43] Due to the uniqueness of having both Racine residents, many of which who were important figures in the city’s history, and Native American burials it was given its landmark status.[44]

135 Mound Cemetery 100 dpi watermark
Soldiers’ monument at Mound Cemetery

Other than the mounds in the cemetery some of the known and famous gravesites of the cemetery include Gilbert Knapp, the founder of Racine; the first white settlers of the county; a handful of veteran’s from George Washington’s army; Lucius Blake, the father of Racine industry; Jerome Increase Case, the founder of J.I. Case Tractors; Henry Mitchell, a leading Racine industrialist; William Horlick, a man who revolutionized the distribution of milk to the troops during World War I; Samuel Curtis Johnson, the founder of S.C. Johnson; and soldiers from the Spanish-American War. Also, M.C. Secor, one of Racine’s most interesting mayors with one of the most famously controversial headstones, rests in the cemetery. The stone reads, “The world is my home. To do good is my religion. Why has a good God created a bad devil?”[45]

In 1985, Wisconsin Act 316 assured that all human burials were to be treated equally with respect and human dignity without any regard to the buried people’s ethnicity, cultural affiliation, or religious beliefs.[46] No persons may intentionally cause or permit the disturbance of a cataloged burial site without a permit from the director of the Wisconsin State Historical Society.[47] Racine recognized the importance of Mound Cemetery and has made efforts at preserving it and its history for generations to come. The burial mounds are one of the most important features of Mound Cemetery but in the future, Racine’s burials will also become the subject of archeological studies.

 

Sources

  • [1] Box 1, Folder 1. Racine Mound Cemetery Vertical File. (Racine Heritage Museum, Racine, WI)
  • [2] Ibid.
  • [3] Ibid.
  • [4] Ibid.
  • [5] E. W. Leach, History of Burying Grounds in Racine, (Racine Heritage Museum, Racine, 1921), 8-9.
  • [6] Ibid. 9.
  • [7] Racine Landmarks Preservation Commission. Mound Cemetery. (Racine, 1976)
  • [8] Box 1, Folder 1. Racine Mound Cemetery Vertical File. (Racine Heritage Museum, Racine, WI)
  • [9] Ibid.
  • [10] Ibid.
  • [11] Serge Logan, Mystery Shrouds Burial Mounds in Racine Ethnologists Can Only Theorize Who Their Builders Were. (Racine Sunday Bulletin, 1954)
  • [12] Box 1, Folder 1. Racine Mound Cemetery Vertical File. (Racine Heritage Museum, Racine, WI)
  • [13] Ibid.
  • [14] Logan, Mystery Shrouds Burial Mounds in Racine, (1954)
  • [15] Box 1, Folder 1. Racine Mound Cemetery Vertical File. (Racine Heritage Museum, Racine, WI)
  • [16] Ibid.
  • [17] Home of the Dead, (Daily Journal, 1889)
  • [18] Box 1, Folder 1. Racine Mound Cemetery Vertical File. (Racine Heritage Museum, Racine, WI)
  • [19] Ibid.
  • [20] Ibid.
  • [21] Leach, History of Burying Ground in Racine, 2.
  • [22] Ibid. 2.
  • [23] Box 1, Folder 1. Racine Mound Cemetery Vertical File. (Racine Heritage Museum, Racine, WI)
  • [24] Leach, History of Burying Ground in Racine, 2.
  • [25] Box 1, Folder 1. Racine Mound Cemetery Vertical File. (Racine Heritage Museum, Racine, WI)
  • [26] Ibid.
  • [27] Logan, Mystery Shrouds Burial Mounds in Racine, (1954)
  • [28] Ibid.
  • [29] Box 1, Folder 1. Racine Mound Cemetery Vertical File. (Racine Heritage Museum, Racine, WI)
  • [30] Logan, Mystery Shrouds Burial Mounds in Racine, (1954)
  • [31] Ibid.
  • [32] Ibid.
  • [33] Ibid.
  • [34] Box 1, Folder 1. Racine Mound Cemetery Vertical File. (Racine Heritage Museum, Racine, WI)
  • [35] Leach, History of Burying Ground in Racine, 10.
  • [36] Box 1, Folder 1. Racine Mound Cemetery Vertical File. (Racine Heritage Museum, Racine, WI)
  • [37] Ibid.
  • [38] Logan, Mystery Shrouds Burial Mounds in Racine, (1954)
  • [39] Leach, History of Burying Ground in Racine, 2.
  • [40] Logan, Mystery Shrouds Burial Mounds in Racine, (1954)
  • [41] Racine Landmarks Preservation Commission. Mound Cemetery. (Racine, 1976)
  • [42] Leach, History of Burying Grounds in Racine, 5-8.
  • [43] Racine Landmarks Preservation Commission. Mound Cemetery. (Racine, 1976)
  • [44] Ibid.
  • [45] Box 1, Folder 1. Racine Mound Cemetery Vertical File. (Racine Heritage Museum, Racine, WI)
  • [46] Register’s Office Racine County, WI. (1999). Notice of Location of Catalogued Burial Site.
  • [47] Ibid.